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    "Sharing the Knowledge"

    International CIDOC CRM Symposium

    March 26 - 27, 2003

    List of Presentations

    Martin Doerr

    Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)
    Institute of Computer Science
    Vassilika Vouton
    Heraklion Crete
    71110 Greece


    The following slides have been presented:
    The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model - Between Scholarship and Technology
    [ppt file]

    Tony Gill

    ArtSTOR Director of Metadata,
    The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
    140 East 62nd Street, New York,
    NY, 10021,


    When the Rubber Hits the Road: Using the CIDOC CRM in the Real World

    This presentation will re-introduce the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model and describe its role in the development of RLG Cultural Materials, a real-world web-based multimedia resource that provides integrated access to heterogeneous digital collections of material culture from a diverse range of memory institutions. The presentation will conclude with a summary of some potential practical applications of the CRM, and suggestions for further research and development

    The following slides have been presented: ppt file [1,05 Mb]

    Thomas Gruber

    Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer


    It Is What It Does: The Pragmatics of Ontology for Knowledge Sharing

    The following slides have been presented: pdf file [270 Kb]

    Andrew Jones

    Department of Computer Science
    Cardiff University
    PO Box 916, Cardiff CF24 3XF
    tel. +44-(0)29-20875537
    fax +44-(0)29-20874598

    Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Problem Solving in Biodiversity Informatics

    The availability of diverse kinds of data sets and analytic tools presents opportunities to do new kinds of analysis in biodiversity informatics. There are, however, some significant difficulties associated with using these resources in combination. We discuss some major issues relating to knowledge sharing in Biodiversity Informatics, including the challenges of autonomy, heterogeneity and data quality. In this discussion we draw on our own experience in the realm of the SPICE for Species 2000 and LITCHI projects. SPICE provides a catalogue of life using a federation of heterogeneous global species databases, while LITCHI applies constraint technology to the detection and resolution of taxonomic conflicts in synonymic checklists. We then discuss the potential of the GRID for supporting knowledge sharing and collaborative problem solving, presenting the techniques we are starting to develop in the recently-commenced BiodiversityWorld project. In particular, we discuss the ways that problem solving environments can support collaborative problem solving and explain various ways in which metadata can support location and use of suitable data and analytic tools. We also outline how we intend to use provenance metadata to support the experimental process, making it possible (for example) to review a particular result and experiment with alternative analytic algorithms or data sets from alternative sources.

    The following slides have been presented: ppt file [1 Mb]

    James Landrum

    Archaeology Materials and Database Manager,
    Archaeology Materials Laboratory (AML) and Archaeology Technologies Laboratory (ATL),
    Department of Sociology and Anthropology,
    College of Arts, Humanities, and
    Social Sciences,
    North Dakota State University
    Fargo, North Dakota.


    S. Candelaria de Ram

    Cognizor (Chief of Research and Technology),
    Cognition and Communication (CEO),
    Python Journal (Editor-in-Chief),,

    Human Markup Language (huml): Humanness Content and Sharing across Perspective Shifts

    Human Markup Language, a set of standard HumanML tags, are designed for explicitly indicating "humanness" -- meaningfulness originating in your point of view and interpreted in the perspective of your fellow in communicating. Gaps in perspectives are to be expected in globalized communication; resolving them fast is of supreme importance. HumanML, or "Human Markup Language",
    is a developing standard tagset for XML envelopes and RDF logic. The endeavor is one among the OASIS projects. To quote the Technical Committee's Charter, "HumanML is designed to represent human characteristics through XML. The aim is to enhance the fidelity of human communication. "

    As meta-labels for communicators' content and perspective, HuML tags address both the personal and contextual aspects of communications. They may range from Community, Culture, Intent, and Emotion to descriptors of person/group and circumstance.

    HumanML tags are carried along with the signal itself as it crosses the bridge between you and your fellow. The goals are better interpretation and more accurate messaging -- even if the fellowship involves a computer or two.

    Computer applications, say for virtual face-to-face communication, may pick up HumanML terms expanded to suit different domains: For instance, primary terms in the base schema such as Intent, Kinesic, and GeoLocator can be variously expanded in applications that handle communications of diplomacy, dance, design, or education. Similarly, Community and Semiosis may be detailed for local or specialized genres and sign-systems. Standard XML expansion mechanisms are available for derivation and expansion as HumanML primary terms are built upon to yield secondary terms for different practical tasks. Use Cases illustrate.

    This is the entire presentation of the paper.
    Also avalable as zip file [19 MB]

    Patrick LeBoeuf


    The book, the bug and the bangle: a parallel and a paradox

    Mappings are a valuable way of assessing conceptual models' robustness. A number of mappings to CRM have been attempted since 1998. This paper is based on the experience acquired in mapping the IFLA conceptual model for bibliographic records, FRBR, to CRM. It seems that the FRBR model does not sufficiently distinguish between "real-life" objects and the way they are reflected in library catalogues, and mistakes them with their appellation. This logical flaw surely will be repaired in FRANAR, the conceptual model that is being developed by IFLA for authority records and that will result in an all-encompassing conceptual model for the whole bibliographic universe of library catalogues. It appears, as a paradox, that the act of cataloguing in a library is perhaps closer to the tasks that pertain to natural history museums than to the act of describing an item that belongs to a fine arts museum, though library items often are regarded as closer to works of art than to biological or mineral items. As CRM covers at the same time natural history and fine arts museums, there is good hope that FRBR and CRM will prove interoperable.

    The following slides have been presented: ppt file [555 Kb]
    This is the entire text of the presentation: doc file [159 Kb]

    Norman Paskin

    The International DOI Foundation
    PO Box 233
    Kidlington, Oxford
    OX5 1XU
    Tel: (+44) 1865 843798
    Fax: (+44) 1865 843446

    web site:

    Managing Material as Digital Objects

    A presentation on emerging standards for persistent identification and interoperable exchange of intellectual property on digital networks, and the potential role of such systems in content management and digital rights management.
    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be used as the focus for this presentation but the points illustrated will be generally applicable. DOIs may be used to identify any intellectual property entity, including those of interest to museum communities. The International DOI Foundation, a non-profit organisation, manages development, policy, and licensing of the DOI system. For further information, refer to Topics to be covered will include:

    • The importance of naming and managing digital objects as first class entities
    • Problems to be addressed in managing digital objects: persistence, description, technical interoperability, semantic interoperability, implementation, and policy/governance
    • The importance of structured data models (indecs, CIDOC CRM, ABC, FRBR) and their use in digital object management.
    • Emerging ISO models for digital object management for intellectual property (MPEG 21 etc)
    • Naming and DNS:.MuseDoma
    • Demonstrations of DOI functionality (live or canned demo)
    • Implementing digital object management: sectors and business models
    • DOI work relevant to CIDOC: with ArTSTOR, with image banks (CORBIS), tool suppliers (Gallery Systems' TMS), pilot work with American Museum of Natural History.

    John Perkins

    Executive Director, CIMI Consortium
    Suite 209 1585 Barrington St.
    Halifax, NS B3J 1Z8
    Tel: 902.429.5392
    Fax: 902.429.5394


    Some strategic issues for sharing information in museums

    Over the past ten years CIMI's research has focused on the interchange of museum information. The outcomes and lessons learned from that work point to the need to address strategic issues in the areas of understanding audiences, economic drivers, technology, and organizational capability, if we are to effectively share knowledge with our colleagues and our customers. This talk will explore some of those key issues.

    The following slides have been presented: ppt file [167 Kb]

    Daniel Pitti

    Project Director
    Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities
    319 Alderman Library P.O. Box 400115
    University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4115
    Phone: 434 924-6594
    Fax: 434 982-2363


    Archival Description: Records, People, and Activities

    While sharing many characteristics of bibliographic and museum description, archival description differs from them in significant ways. This presentation will describe the essential characteristics of archival description. In particular it will discuss records as evidence of human activity, and collection-level hierarchical description. The speaker will also describe Encoded Archival Description (EAD), an XML-based descriptive standard for describing records, and Encoded Archival Context (EAC), a prototype XML-based descriptive standard for describing people (individuals, families, and corporate bodies). The presentation will conclude with observations concerning the opportunities and challenges of providing union, universal access to cultural heritage resources, with reference to the Conceptual Reference Model.

    The following slides have been presented: ppt file [90 KB]

    Amit Sheth

    Large Scale Distr. Info. Sys. Lab
    Department of Computer Science
    University of Georgia
    415 Graduate Studies Research Center
    Athens GA 30602-7404

    Tel. 706-542-2310 (direct) 706-372-4017 (cell) 706-542-2966 (dept-fax) 208-247-6270 (personal-fax)
    Email: (UGA), (personal)

    Ontology Driven Information Systems in Action
    (Capturing and Applying Existing Knowledge to Semantic Applications

    Ontology driven information systems are now becoming reality and first generation Semantic Web applications are being put in practice. We present some practical experiences and insights based on academic research (SCORE technology developed at the LSDIS lab, UGA) into commercial product (Freedom from Semagix, Inc), and its applications with real world challenges in achieving Semantic Enterprise Information Integration. In particular, we review technique, tools and usage experiences involving:

    • Ontology creation and maintenance
    • Knowledge-based and other techniques for Automatic Classification
    • Ontology-driven Semantic Metadata Extraction/Annotation and Semantic Normalization
    • Utilizing semantic metadata and ontology for semantic querying/browsing/analysis as well as semantic information and application integration

    The following slides have been presented: pdf file [1,762 Kb]

    Jane Sledge

    Information Resource Manager
    National Museum Of The American Indian
    Smithsonian Institution
    Office of Technology
    Cultural Resources Center
    4220 Silver Hill Road
    Suitland MD 20746-2863

    Tel: 301 238-6624 ext 6249
    Fax: 301 238-3200

    Richard Smiraglia

    Palmer School of LIS
    Long Island University
    720 Northern Blvd.
    Brookville NY 11548


    The Centrality of "The Work" as Component for Knowledge Sharing

    Works are key entities in the universe of recorded knowledge. Works are deliberate creations (known variously as opera, oeuvres, Werke, etc.) that stand as the formal records of knowledge, essential records of human accomplishment. In the information retrieval domain, the work as opposed to the document, has only recently received focused attention. But works (oeuvres, etc.) are key entities for information retrieval, serving as vehicles for communication between creators (scholars, artists, etc.) and the audiences that consume their creative efforts. Artifacts (sculptures, paintings, realia, documents, books, scores, recordings, etc.) are the physical media collected by repositories of culture (libraries, archives, museums, etc.), and are the means by which works are communicated. Smiraglia (2001, 2002b) has demonstrated the evolutionary patterns of works and their utility as entities for information retrieval.
    Works mutate and derive across time and culture in response to their entrance into a canon of cultural meaning. Systems for information retrieval must be designed with this in mind, to facilitate gathering of the instantiations of a given work, as well as selection of one from among many. The epistemology of the work (Smiraglia 2002a) demonstrates an approach to information architecture for knowledge sharing across domains. The epistemology of the documentary work can be extended as a pragmatic tool for the development of metadata and other documentation practices for knowledge-sharing about works across domains.

    The following slides have been presented:ppt file [248 KB]

    Stephen Stead

    Paveprime Ltd
    76 Hillside Road
    London SW2 3HP

    Tel: 44 207 8678 0406
    Fax: 44 207 8678 0405

    The following slides have been presented: ppt file [80.6 Kb]

    Matthew Stiff

    Data Services Unit Manager
    National Monuments Record Centre
    Kemble Drive
    SN2 2GZ


    Semantic glue, not sticky tape: The CRM and historic environment information in England

    The unification of English Heritage and the Royal Commission on the Historic Monuments of England brought together the two key government-funded organizations responsible for the historic environment in England. It also brought together a diverse range of overlapping datasets, many of them legacy systems. English Heritage is also responsible for supporting the work of the English sites and monuments records, as well as making its standards available to other heritage bodies. This paper will examine the programme of work envisioned by the Data Services Unit in compiling the Heritage Data Directory (HEDD), identifying applications and schema, and the role of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model as a means of facilitating interoperability between key information sources. It will also consider its potential for drawing together some of the diverse range of datasets within the broader heritage community into an historic environment information network.

    Bhavani Thuraisingham

    Bhavani Thuraisingham
    Program Director
    Data and Security Applications
    Division of Information and Intelligent Systems
    4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 1115
    Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA

    Tel: (703) 292-8930
    Fax: (703) 292-9073

    Secure Knowledge Management

    Recent developments in information systems technologies have resulted in computerizing many applications in various business areas. Data has become a critical resource in many organizations, and therefore, efficient access to data, sharing the data, extracting information from the data, and making use of the information has become an urgent need. As a result, there have been many efforts on not only integrating the various data sources scattered across several sites, but extracting information from these databases in the form of patterns and trends has also become important. These data sources may be databases managed by database management systems, or they could be data warehoused in a repository from multiple data sources.
    The advent of the World Wide Web (WWW) in the mid 1990s has resulted in even greater demand for managing data, information and knowledge effectively. There is now so much data on the web that managing it with conventional tools is becoming almost impossible. New tools and techniques are needed to effectively manage this data. Therefore, to provide interoperability as well as warehousing between the multiple data sources and systems, and to extract information and knowledge from the databases and warehouses on the web, various tools are being developed.
    Managing the data, information and knowledge on the web as well as using it to get a competitive advantage in an organization has come to be known as knowledge management. Knowledge management essentially consists of processes and tools to effectively share data as well as use the knowledge of an organization. For example, the expertise of individuals of organizations need to be captured so that this expertise can be reused even if the individuals are no longer with the corporation. Knowledge management includes several areas including multimedia information management, collaboration and the semantic web. As the demand for data, information and knowledge management increases; there is also a critical need for maintaining the security of the databases, applications and information systems. Data, information and knowledge as well as the intellectual assets and property of a corporation have to be protected and secured. This information has to be protected from unauthorized access as well as from malicious corruption. With the advent of the web it is even more important to protect the data, information and knowledge as numerous individuals now have access to the assets of a corporation. Therefore, we need effective mechanisms for securing data/information/knowledge as well as the applications.
    This presentation will review the developments in data and applications security as well as in knowledge management. Then it will provide directions for secure knowledge management. That is, we need to explore the techniques developed for securing databases and applications to securing the knowledge of a corporation. We also need to develop additional mechanisms to secure the knowledge. Secure knowledge management will include areas such as protecting the intellectual assets, secure collaboration, secure multimedia data and applications, secure semantic web as well as secure peer-to-peer computing. We will then focus on one aspect and that is securing the semantic web. We believe that the web is evolving into the semantic web. Semantic web is a key aspect of knowledge management and therefore we need to explore security, privacy and trust for the semantic web.


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